The Hidden Connection: Periodontal Disease and Other Health Conditions

Let's talk about it!

When we think about oral health, we often limit our concerns to our teeth and gums. However, emerging research has shed light on the profound impact of periodontal disease, commonly known as gum disease, on our overall well-being. It turns out that this seemingly isolated oral condition is intricately linked to several other diseases and conditions throughout the body. 


Understanding Periodontal Disease...

Before we dive into the connections, let's briefly explore what periodontal disease is. It's a chronic inflammatory condition of the gums and supporting structures of the teeth, typically caused by the accumulation of plaque and bacteria.

In its early stages, it might manifest as gingivitis, which is characterized by redness, swelling, and bleeding of the gums. If left untreated, it can progress to periodontitis, a more severe form of the disease, leading to bone loss and other complications.


The Link to Systemic Health Conditions


Heart Disease

The link between periodontal disease and heart disease is one of the most well-established connections. Studies have shown that individuals with gum disease are at an increased risk of developing heart disease.

The inflammation in the gums may contribute to inflammation in the blood vessels, which can lead to atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in arteries), increasing the risk of heart attacks and strokes.



People with diabetes are more susceptible to gum disease, and equally, untreated gum disease can make it harder to control blood sugar levels. The relationship is bidirectional.

Managing gum disease can help improve diabetes management, and managing diabetes can reduce the severity of gum disease.


Respiratory Problems

Aspiration of oral bacteria from infected gums can lead to respiratory infections like pneumonia.

This is especially concerning for vulnerable populations, such as the elderly or those with compromised immune systems.


Rheumatoid Arthritis

Research suggests a connection between gum disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Both conditions involve chronic inflammation, and treating gum disease may reduce the severity of rheumatoid arthritis symptoms.


Pregnancy Complications

Expectant mothers with untreated gum disease may be at a higher risk of preterm birth and low birth weight. Infections and inflammation in the gums can trigger an inflammatory response elsewhere in the body, potentially affecting the developing fetus.


Joint Replacement

A recent or existing joint replacement could be at risk for bacteria travelling from the oral cavity through the blood stream and lodging in the area where the joint was replaced causing infection or complications in healing with possibly hindering the success of the surgery. 


General Immunocompromisation

As the body fights high levels of oral pathogens the remainder of the body is left vulnerable for opportunistic bacteria to attack.  With advanced periodontitis the immune system is too busy fighting the aggressive infection to protect the rest of the body.  




The Importance of Prevention and Treatment

Given these connections between periodontal disease and other health conditions, it's clear that maintaining good oral hygiene and seeking timely treatment is not just about preserving your smile; it's about safeguarding your overall health and well-being.


Here are some practical steps you can take...

Regular Dental Check-ups: Schedule routine dental visits for cleanings and check-ups. Early detection and treatment of gum disease are key.

Oral Hygiene: Brush and floss daily to prevent the buildup of plaque and bacteria.

Healthy Lifestyle: Maintain a balanced diet, exercise regularly, and avoid smoking, which is a significant risk factor for gum disease.

Manage Chronic Conditions: If you have diabetes, heart disease, or other chronic conditions, work closely with your healthcare providers to manage both your oral and systemic health.

Stay Informed: Keep yourself informed about the latest research on the links between periodontal disease and systemic health conditions.


Ultimately, our mouths are not isolated from the rest of our bodies. Periodontal disease is a silent contributor to various systemic health conditions. By taking proactive steps to maintain good oral health, we can reduce our risk of developing these related health issues. Remember, your smile is not just a reflection of your oral health; it's a reflection of your overall well-being.


Interested in learning more about the link between periodontitis and systemic conditions?  

  1. Canadian Academy of Periodontology- Periodontal Disease and your Health
  2. Harvard Health Publishing- Gum disease and the connection to heart disease
  3. ANNALS Academy of Medicine, Singapore- Periodontal disease and systemic health: An update for medical practitioners
  4. University of Toronto-Mechanism Linking Gum Disease to Heart Disease, Other Inflammatory Conditions Discovered
  5. Evolving evidence for relationships between periodontitis and systemic diseases: Position paper from the Canadian Dental Hygienists Association

Lead Author: Chris Weichenthal CDAII

Co-Author: Michelle Aubé (Simmons)

Chris Weichenthal CDAII

With over two decades of dedicated experience in the dental field, Chris brings a wealth of dental knowledge and expertise to maxill. She’s had the privilege of collaborating with a diverse range of dental specialists, honing her expertise in various facets of oral healthcare. Her true passion however lies in patient education. She derives immense satisfaction from empowering patients with the knowledge they need to make informed decisions about their oral health. Chris is continuously driven to evolve and share her extensive dental knowledge, and remains committed to nurturing the future of dentistry, fostering a legacy of informed practitioners who prioritize patient well-being and excellence in oral healthcare.

Michelle Aubé (Simmonds) RDH, maxill Dental Hygiene Educator

Michelle is a Dental Hygiene Speaker, Consultant and Educator with over 21 years of experience as a RDH and 4 years as a CDA. She has written dental hygiene articles for CDHA’s OH Canada professional publication and continues to practice clinically and teaches both clinical dental hygiene and practice management at Fanshawe College and the University of Western Ontario. She has served on the Discipline Committee at Algonquin College and held the position of a CDHO Quality Assurance Assessor for 7 years.